Modeller's Guide to Late P-51 Mustang Variants
On April 30, 1942, Ronald W. Harker, a test pilot for the British Rolls-Royce engine manufacturer, took a brief hop in a RAF Mustang at the airbase at Duxford. Like lots of other pilots, he was highly impressed with the Mustang. Upon landing, he is reported to have said that the airplane would be a natural for the new Merlin 60 series of engines that Rolls Royce was just beginning to produce. Thus the most important step in the Mustang's evolution had been initiated.
Rolls Royce management immediately jumped into action. They requested that three Mustangs be loaned to them so that they could fit them with Merlins. The conversion was authorized on August 12, 1942. Initially, three Mustang Is were allocated to the program, but two more were added later. They were assigned the designation Mustang X. No two of these Mustang Xs were exactly alike, but they all featured small chin-type radiators underneath the engine and four-bladed propellers to absorb the extra power and they were all powered by the Merlin 65.
The first Mustang X (AL975) took to the air on October 12, 1942, piloted by Captain R. T. Shepherd. It initially had a regular Spitfire IX Rotol propeller but was later fitted with a larger specially-designed propeller. These Mustang Xs were to be kept busy throughout the rest of the war, testing various later marks of the Merlin engine.
The success of these tests led Rolls Royce to propose the production of 500 Merlin 65 engines to re-engine most of the RAF's Mustang fleet to Mark X standards. However, there was no place where these conversions could be done, and such plans were never carried out.
Meanwhile, in May of 1942, Rolls-Royce had informed Major Thomas Hitchcock, US military attache in London, that they planned to convert Mustang airframes to the Merlin engine. It just so happened that Major Hitchcock had been thinking of just this idea himself. He passed the word along to Wright Field and to North American Aviation. On July 25, 1942, North American was authorized to convert two Mustangs to Merlin 65 engines imported from England. These aircraft were considered sufficiently different from the existing Mustang that they were given a new designation XP-78.
NAA selected two P-51s from the batch of Mustang IAs that had been repossessed from the RAF by the USAAF. NAA gave the project the company designation NA-101. The designation of these two aircraft was changed to XP-51B while the work was progressing.
The North American engineers moved the carburetor air intake from above to below the nose in order to accommodate the Merlin's updraft induction system. The intercooler radiator was added to the radiator group already located inside the scoop underneath the rear fuselage, and the ventral radiator group was made noticeably deeper than before and had a sharp-angled inlet standing more than two inches away from the underside of the fuselage. The matrix and door arrangement of the ventral radiator system were modified, receiving also a much bigger exit door at the rear.
XP-51B with it's outer
wing panels removed is undergoing wind tunnel tests at NACA in March 1943.
The XP-51B prototype featured significantly deeper chin intake fairing than later production aircraft.
New ailerons were also fitted and the underwing racks were increased in capacity to take two 1000-lb bombs or their equivalent weight in drop tanks. A new four-bladed Hamilton Standard hydromatic paddle-bladed propeller was fitted. Provisions for fuselage- mounted guns were totally eliminated, plans being made for four 0.50-in machine guns mounted exclusively in the wings.
The first XP-51B was flown by Bob Chilton on November 30, 1942. It was initially flown without armament. The performance improvement was nothing short of astounding. The XP-51B achieved a level speed of 441 mph at 29,800 feet, over 100 mph faster than the Allison-engined P-51 at that altitude. At all heights, the rate of climb was approximately doubled.
The extensively reworked lines of the Mustang airframe introduced with the B-model are evident on this picture. This particular aircraft, P-51B-1-NA series machine was retained by NACA for tests and is seen here carrying extra probes under both wings.
As 1943 dawned, the Mustang production program suddenly expanded to new factories. The huge Inglewood, California factory was greatly expanded and dedicated solely to Mustang production. The USAAF instructed NAA to expand the Dallas plant even further as a second source for Mustangs. Inglewood-built Mustangs were designated P-51B, Dallas-built Mustangs were designated P-51C. These aircraft were almost identical, and can generally be distinguished only by serial number.
By the end of January 1943 the production standard for the P-51B/C had been decided. In order to take full advantage of the additional power, the airframe was restressed in detail and the aircraft was made capable of operating at considerably greater weights than was previously possible. The wing racks were eventually cleared to carry bombs of 1000 pounds each or a wide range of other stores including drop tanks or triple rocket tubes.
The engine installation was further refined, with a rectangular filtered-air inlet in each side of the carburetor duct, and the exhaust expelled through individual ejector stubs projecting through a slim fairing. The ailerons were modified aerodynamically and structural, although the changes were visible externally only by the fact that the tabs were made of plastic. The armament was to be four 0.50-inch Browning MG53-2 guns in the wings. The fuselage nose guns were deleted.
The first P-51B flew on May 5, 1943, and the first P-51C flew on August 5 of that year. Inglewood built 1988 P-51Bs and Dallas built 1750 P-51Cs.
Initially, the P-51B and C had the Packard V-1560-3 engine rated at 1400 hp for takeoff and 1450 hp at 19,800 feet and carried four 0.50-inch machine guns with a total of 1260 rounds. There were four hundred P-51B-1-NAs and 250 P-51C-1-NTs built.
The last 550 P-51B-5-NAs were fitted with the extra fuel tank extra tank behind the pilot's seat in the pursuit of still more range, becoming P-51B-7-NAs, and into P-51C-1-NTs, becoming P-51C-3-NT. In addition, some earlier P-51Bs and Cs were modified in the field to accommodate this tank.
A number of American Mustangs carried the RAF-style Malcolm Hood canopy, as exemplified here by the "The Iowa Beaut" of the 354th Fighter Squadron, 355th FG. The aircraft is P-51B-15-NA, ser.no 42-106950, and the time is summer 1944
During the P-51B-10-NA and P-51C-1-NT production run, it was decided to omit the Olive Drab camouflage and to deliver the aircraft in their natural metal finish. This move saved extra cost, weight, and drag.
With the introduction of the P-51C-5-NT onto the Dallas production line and the P-51B-15-NA in the Inglewood production line, the Packard V-1560-7 engine was adopted as standard.
Some 3738 P-51Bs and Cs were built.
A total of 91 aircraft from the Block-10 production lot (71 P-51B-10-NAs and 20 P-51C-10-NTs) were fitted with two oblique K24 cameras, or a K17 and a K22, to become F-6C-NA or -NT photo aircraft. Most of these aircraft retained their guns. In each case the cameras were immediately in front of the structural break ahead of the tailwheel, looking out the left side.
Some of the P-51Bs and Cs served with front-line units until the end of hostilities, but others were converted as two-seat trainers or squadron hacks. The last P-51B passed out of service in 1949, having been re-designated F-51B in 1948.
The RAF equivalent to the USAAF P-51B/C was known as the Mustang III. The RAF ultimately received 274 P-51Bs and 626 P-51Cs.
A total of 59 Mustang IIIs were diverted to the Royal Australian Air Force and to other Allied air arms.
After these Mustang III aircraft had been delivered to England, the RAF decided that the hinged cockpit canopy offered too poor a view for European operations. A fairly major modification was made in which the original framed hinged hood was replaced by a bulged Perspex frameless canopy that slid to the rear on rails. This canopy gave the pilot much more room and the huge goldfish bowl afforded a good view almost straight down or directly to the rear. This hood was manufactured and fitted by the British corporation R. Malcolm & Co., and came to be known as the "Malcolm Hood". This hood was fitted to most RAF Mustang IIIs, and many USAAF Eighth and Ninth Air Force P-51B/C fighters received this modification as well.
The first RAF base to receive Mustang IIIs was at Gravesend in Kent. The Mustang III initially equipped No. 65 Squadron in late December of 1943, followed by No. 19 Squadron in March of 1944.
RAF Mustang Mk.
III belonging to No. 19 Squadron on an airfield somewhere in Europe.
Malcolm hood Mustangs had extra canopy rails, visible here behind the cockpit.
One of the problems encountered with the Merlin-powered P-51B/C was the poor view from the cockpit, particular towards the rear. Two P-51Bs were taken from the assembly line and converted into proof of concept vehicles for a bubble-topped Mustang, which was to be designated P-51D. They were redesignated XP-51D. In order to accommodate the new all-round vision hood, the rear fuselage of the Mustang had to be extensively cut down.
The newly-modified XP-51D took off on its first flight at Inglewood on November 17, 1943, test pilot Bob Chilton at the controls.
Different wing planform of the P-51D with more pronounced "kink" is evident here.
Having proven the concept, NAA diverted two P-51B-10-NAs (serial numbers 42-106539 and 42-106540) from the Inglewood production line and completed them as NA-106s with cut-down rear fuselage and bubble canopy. These two aircraft were redesignated P-51D.
NAA took also the opportunity afforded by the introduction of the new Mustang to redesign the gun installation. The result was the installation of three MG53-2 0.50-inch machine guns in each wing. However, Mustang users had the options of removing two of the guns and having just four, with 400 rounds each, and some pilots did actually select this option.
Another visible change introduced by the P-51D was in the increase of the wing root chord. The main landing gear was strengthened in order to accommodate the additional weight, but the wheels maintained the same diameter of 27 inches. However, the wheel bays and doors were modified and the "kink" in the wing leading edge was made much more pronounced.
Four P-51D-1-NA Mustangs had been completed with the original B-type canopy before the first P-51D-5-NA model (company designation NA-109) rolled off the production line.
In order to provide for better directional stability, a dorsal fin was added ahead of the rudder during the production run of the P-51D Block 10. Some of the earlier P-51Ds (plus a few P-51Bs) were retrofitted with this dorsal fin.
The two P-51Ds in the foreground show a variation in dorsal fin configuration seen on early production "D" models. Both aircraft are P-51D-5-NAs originally produced without the fin, which has been retrofitted on the E2*S. The photo has been taken around end-July 1944, and the aircraft belong to 375th Fighter Squadron, 361st FG.
The P-51D introduced the K-14 computing gyro gunsight, based on a British (Ferranti) design.
Inglewood delivered 6502 P-51Ds, ordered as the NA-109 (D-1 to D-10), NA-111 (D-15 and D-20) and NA-122 (D-15 and D-30). P-51Ds were also constructed in NAA's Dallas plant, the Dallas plant building some 1454 of these planes before production finally ceased. Dallas-built blocks D-5 through D-20 were known as NA-111, with blocks D-25 and D-30 being known as NA-124
Almost all Block-25 and subsequent Ds had underwing hardpoints not only for bombs and fuel tanks but also for various types of rocket launchers. These included zero-length stubs for six 5-inch rockets or as many as ten if no drop tanks were carried. Alternatively, "Bazooka" tubes could be carried in triple clusters. There were a few field conversions to special armament fits, examples including two tanks and six 100-lb bombs, four 100-lb bombs, plus 36 fragmentation bombs, or four 75-Imp gall drop tanks. CBI aircraft usually had a direction-finding loop antenna ahead of the fin.
was another P-51D-5-NA flown by Thomas L. "Tommy" Hayes,
commander of the 364th Fighter Squadron, 357th FG. This photo was
taken in August, 1944 in Leiston.
Note different type of drop tanks.
The Dallas plant also built 1337 P-51Ks, which differed from the P-51D in having an 11-foot diameter Aeroproducts propeller in place of the 11 feet 2 inch diameter Hamilton Standard unit. These were all known as NA-111 by the company. The P-51K had a slightly inferior performance to that of the P-51D. Rocket stubs were introduced on the -10-NT and subsequent batches of the K production line at Dallas.
Booky IV served with the 357th
FG, 362nd Fighter Squadron and was piloted by Maj. Leonard "Kit" Carson,
credited with 18.5 kills.
The only visible difference from the D-model is the Aeroproducts propeller, with the blades narrowing towards the tips. Compare with the Hamilton prop of the RAF Mustang III above.
A total of 163 P-51Ks were completed as F-6K photo-reconnaissance aircraft. 126 Inglewood-built P-51Ds from blocks 20, 25, and 30 were converted after completion as F-6Ds. A few others were similarly converted near the end of the war. All of these photographic Mustangs carried two cameras in the rear fuselage, usually a K17 and a K22, one looking out almost horizontally off to the left and the other one down below looking out at at an oblique angle. Most F-6Ds and Ks carried a direction- finding receiver, serviced by a rotating loop antenna mounted just ahead of the dorsal fin. Most F-6Ds and Ks retained their armament.
Distinguishing features of the F-6D Mustang are camera windows in the rear fuselage.
Several Dallas-built P-51Ds were modified as two-seat trainers with an additional seat fitted behind the pilot's seat. These were given the designation TP-51D. In order to accommodate the second seat, the radio equipment had to be relocated and an additional seat with full dual controls was installed behind the normal seat. The standard bubble canopy was large enough to accommodate the extra seat. One of the TP-51Ds was modified for use as a special high-speed observation post by Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower, which he used to inspect the Normandy beach-heads in June of 1944.
The Royal Air Force received 281 Ds and 594 Ks, designating them Mustang IV and Mustang IVA respectively. The type did not enter RAF service until September 1944, with the earlier Mustang III still remaining in active service.
At the end of the war in Europe, the RAF took delivery of 600 Mustang IVs in India for use against the Japanese in Burma and beyond. However, Japan surrendered before these could be put to use, and most of these aircraft were scrapped.
After the war, a large number of the RAF's Mustangs were returned to the USA, but a few continued to serve with the RAF as late as May of 1947 when they were replaced by British-built equipment.
The P-51D remained in service in considerable numbers with the USAAF for many years after the Second World War ended. In 1948, the newly-formed USAF eliminated the P-for-pursuit category and replaced it with F-for-fighter. The designation of the P-51 was changed to F-51.
In May 1946, the Air National Guard (ANG) was reformed and ANG fighter units received most of the P-51D/K Mustangs withdrawn from regular USAAF service. It was agreed that the Mustang would go primarily to ANG groups west of the Mississippi, with the ANG groups east of the Mississippi being equipped with the P-47 Thunderbolt. By December of 1948, over 700 Mustangs were serving with 28 ANG squadrons. No fewer than 22 of the 27 ANG wings saw service in the Korean War.
In addition, the old category of F for photographic reconnaissance was eliminated, and F-6D and F-6K photographic reconnaissance aircraft became RF-51D and RF-51K respectively. Two seat F-6D conversions became TRF-51D.
RF-51D reconnaissance aircraft also served with the ANG.
In January of 1943, North American Aviation suggested to the USAAF that they build a special lightweight version of the Mustang. It was agreed that a thorough redesign would be carried out, mainly to reduce weight but also to simplify systems, improve maintenance, and enhance performance without changing the engine. The project was given the company designation NA-105. Two prototypes were ordered under the designation XP-51F, the contract being amended in June of 1943 to cover the purchase of five XP-51Fs, all powered by Packard V-1650-3 engines.
Resemblance to the previous Mustang was only coincidental, since the structure of the aircraft was almost completely redesigned and almost no parts were common. Most of the changes were made in an attempt to save weight. The main landing gear members were redesigned and the wheels and tires were greatly reduced in size. New disc brakes were fitted to the wheels. The wing was slightly larger in area, and had a straight-line leading edge, completely eliminating the familiar "kink" of the earlier Mustang versions. The wing aerofoil was changed to an even newer low-drag "laminar flow" profile. The inboard wing guns were deleted, the remaining four guns having 440 rounds each. The engine mounting was simplified, the "integral" engine cradle for the V-1650-7 saving over 100 pounds of weight and improving the access to the engine. The engine coolant and intercooler radiators were redesigned and installed in a completely new duct which had a vertical inlet which was placed even farther away from the underside of the wing.
The cockpit layout was improved (with the standard British panel being adopted), and the pilot's back armor was made integral with the seat. The canopy was made much larger in an effort to reduce the drag still further. Aerodynamic control surfaces were improved, and the tail surfaces were made larger. The ailerons were given a larger degree of movement, and the chord of the flaps and the ailerons were made equal. Still more weight was saved by using a three-bladed Aeroproducts hollow-steel propeller. Many minor metal parts were replaced with molded plastic parts.
The first XP-51F was flown by Bob Chilton on February 14, 1944. Considering that the equipped empty weight was about a ton less than that of the P-51D, the performance improvement was not as spectacular as might have been anticipated.
Before construction of XP-51F began, it was agreed that the last two of the NA-105 airframes would be fitted with Rolls Royce Merlin 145M engines obtained from England under reverse Lend/Lease. These aircraft were designated XP-51G. Five-bladed propellers were fitted, but the XP-51G was otherwise similar to the XP-51F.
The third XP-51F was shipped to the United Kingdom on June 20, 1944 after preliminary flight checks. It was painted in RAF camouflage and was named Mustang V. The RAF serial number was FR409. The A&AEE at Boscombe Down found the Mustang V to weigh only 7855 pounds in interceptor trim. They rated it very highly except for a severe lack of directional stability which required frequent heavy application of rudder in certain flight conditions.
The second XP-51G was shipped to the United Kingdom in February 1945. This plane was also named Mustang Mk. V.
Neither the P-51F nor the G were developed any further, although the work on these two airplanes was invaluable in the development of the P-51H.
The last prototype in the lightweight NA-105 series was the XP-51J, which was similar to the F and G models except that it reintroduced the Allison V-1710 engine to bring the Mustang full circle. Unlike earlier Allisons, this engine had an updraft carburetor. The nose geometry was substantially modified, and all air inlets in the nose were completely eliminated. A dorsal fin was fitted.
Two XP-51J prototypes were ordered. The first made its maiden flight on April 23, 1945. The end of the war in the Pacific brought all further work on the XP-51J to an end.
The ultimate version of the Mustang was the P-51H, which was the fastest Mustang variant to see service and one of the fastest (if not the fastest) piston-engined fighters to enter production during the Second World War. However, it was destined never to see any combat, having entered service too late to participate in the final action against Japan.
Rather than commit the F or G versions to production, the USAAF decided instead to produce a version powered by the uprated Packard Merlin V-1659-9 engine. North American Aviation gave the project the company designation NA 126, and it was ordered into production as the P-51H in June of 1944 even before much of the initial design work was done.
The fin and rudder in the P-51H were significantly increased in height and the rear fuselage was lengthened to produce an overall length of 33 feet 4 inches (nearly two feet longer than the P-51D). Other features were taken directly from the XP-51F project--it had the same shallower carburetor air intake underneath the nose and modified cowling with integral engine mounting, the same simplified undercarriage with smaller wheels and disc brakes, and it had the same broad-chord wing without the leading edge "kink". However, the cockpit canopy was much smaller than that of the XP-51F, being more nearly equal in size to that of the P-51D. The profile of the canopy was somewhat different from that of the P-51D, with the top of the hump being much closer to the front just above the pilot's head.
Side view of the P-51H in flight reveals new raised canopy with different profile, enlarged vertical tail mounted on longer fuselage and revised radiator duct of this variant.
The radiator installation was increased in depth and the matrix was increased in size. The front edge of the inlet duct was vertical as it was in the lightweight versions, and the bottom line downstream was almost straight rather than bulged. The fuselage was modified in order to raise the cockpit to give an 8-degree gunsight deflection angle looking down along the top line from gunsight to spinner. Armament returned to six machine guns, although alternative installations of four guns could be fitted.
Provisions were also made for normal loads of external stores, similar to that which could be carried by the P-51D/K. Access for gun servicing was improved by redesign of the wing doors and ammunition feed system.
There were 20 P-51H-1-NAs built from February 1945, all with the XP-51F tail. The distinctive taller tail was installed on the P-51H-5-NA and later production block aircraft and was later retrofitted to earlier P-51H-1-NAs.
2000 P-51Hs were ordered, made up of 555 NA-126s and 1445 NA-129s with minor differences. All of these planes were to be built at the Inglewood factory. 1629 more examples were ordered from NAAs Dallas plant under the charging number of NA-124, these being designated P-51M by the USAAF. The P-51M differed primarily in having the V-1650-9A engine. The last P-51H rolled off the production line in 1946.
Although it is not generally known, there have been periodic attempts to reintroduce the Mustang into USAF service in the years after that. In fact, such efforts continued up until the early 1980s.
The final withdrawal of the Mustang from USAF and ANG service dumped hundreds of P-51s out onto the civilian market. The rights to the Mustang design were purchased from North American by the Cavalier Aircraft Corporation, which attempted to market the surplus Mustang aircraft both in the US and overseas. In 1967 and again in 1972, the USAF procured additional batches of Mustangs from Cavalier, most of them destined for air forces in South America and Asia that were participating in the Military Assistance Program (MAP).
This photograph shows the F-51 Mustang at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards AFB in 1955. It shows the typical Cavalier modification of adding a F-51H style tail to the P-51D airframe.
These aircraft were remanufactured from existing F-51D airframes but were fitted with new V-1650-7 engines, a new radio fit, tall F-51H-type vertical tails, and a stronger wing which could carry six 0.50-inch machine guns and a total of eight underwing hardpoints. Two 1000-pound bombs and six five-inch rockets could be carried. They all had an original F-51D-type canopy, but carried a second seat for an observer behind the pilot. Although these new Mustangs were intended for delivery to South American and Asian nations through the Military Assistance Program (MAP), they were delivered with full USAF markings and were allocated new serial numbers.
Cavalier believed that the Mustang design still had potential for further development. In the late 1960s, the company began to explore the possibility of replacing the Packard Merlin piston engine of the F-51D with a turboprop engine. In 1968, the company mounted a 1740 e.s.h.p Rolls-Royce Dart 510 turboprop into a F-51D and flight-tested the aircraft as the Turbo-Mustang III. It bore the civilian registration number of N6167U.
However, the Cavalier company decided to sell the rights for further development to the Piper Aircraft Corporation, and cancelled any further work on the re-engined Mustang project. On November 4, 1970, the Dart-powered Mustang prototype was delivered to the Piper factory at Vero Beach.
At that time, the US was embroiled in the Vietnam War, and combat experience indicated that there was a need for a low-cost, high-performance close-support aircraft for use by foreign air forces obtaining MAP assistance. This project was given the name Pave Coin.
In pursuit of production contracts under the Pave Coin program, the Piper company undertook a more ambitious Mustang conversion effort. One single-seat F-51D and one two-seat TF-51D airframe were fitted with the 2455 s.h.p. Lycoming T55-L-9 turboprop engine. The project was given the name Enforcer by Piper. The first Enforcer conversion was flown on April 19, 1971. Later that year, the USAF evaluated one of these Enforcers and confirmed the original performance claims, but did not show very much enthusiasm for the project.
Even though the USAF never saw any use for the Enforcer, Congressional pressure led eventually to a contract in September 1981 for Piper to construct two new prototypes for evaluation. They were known under the company designation of PA-48. The two PA-48 prototypes were given civilian registrations rather than military serial numbers, and were never given any military designations.
The PA-48 Enforcer bore only the slightest resemblance to the F-51D--only ten percent of the parts were in common. The fuselage was lengthened by 19 inches aft of the wing and larger tail surfaces were fitted. Power was provided by a Lycoming T55-L-9 turboprop. The familiar trademark Mustang ventral scoop was completely removed, and a large turboprop exhaust was fitted on the left-hand side of the fuselage just ahead of the cockpit. A Yankee rocket ejector seat was fitted in the single seat cockpit. Provisions for wingtip tanks were made, and ten underwing hardpoints were fitted. The fixed wing-mounted guns were removed, and all gun armament was carried within underwing pods. The two PA-48s first flew in spring 1983,
The PA-48 Enforcer was unsuccessful in obtaining any production orders, and both prototypes were put in storage by the USAF in late 1986.
The table below states serial numbers for the Merlin-powered Mustang variants.
|Version||US serial numbers||RAF serial numbers|
|Mustang Mk. X||AM121, AM208, AL975, AM203, AL963|
|Mustang Mk. III||FB100..FB124, FB135..FB399, FR411, FX848..FX999, FZ100.FZ197, HB821..HB962, HK944..HK947, HK955, HK956, KH421..KH640, SR406..SR438, SR440|
|TP-51D||44-84610, 44-84611, 44-84662, 45-11443..11450|
|Mustang Mk. IV/IVA||KH641..KH670 (P-51D), KH671..KH870 (P-51K), KM100..KM492 (P-51K), KM493..KM743 (P-51D), KM744..KM799 (undelivered), TK589 (P-51D)|
|XP-51G / Mustang Mk. V||43-43335..43336||FR410.|
|Cavalier F-51D||67-14862..14866, 67-22579..22582, 72-1526..1541|
P-51Bs and Cs were assigned to the following fighter groups in the European Theatre:
Units operating the P-51D in the ETO included the following:
USAAF Mustang Groups in Pacific Theatre of Operations:
RAF Mustangs Mk. III equipped Nos 64, 65, 66, 93, 94, 112, 118, 122, 126, 129, 165, 234, 237, 241 249, 250, 260, 268, 306, 309, 315, 316, 345, 430, 441, 442, and 516 Squadrons and No. 541 Squadron of RAF Coastal Command. These units included four Polish squadrons (306, 309, 315, 316), three RCAF, and one Free French.
Mustang Mk. IV became standard equipment with Nos 19, 64, 65, 112, 118, 122, 154, 213, 149, 260, 303 (Polish), 306 (Polish), 442 and 611 Squadrons.